Information Management and Digital Archiving


Ingrid Pappel

Dr Ingrid Pappel (PhD), lecturer, has over 15 years of experience and has been active in different development projects related to e-governance solutions. Besides working as a project manager in several state projects it has been her privilege to lecture in many universities and colleges in Estonia since 2007. One of her biggest achievements in recent years and a crucial component for e-governance education has been the establishment of international Master’s programme e-Governance Technologies and Services ( within Tallinn University of Technology in cooperation with field experts and public sector facilities.This programme should enable to aggregate best-practice academic knowledge as well as the needs of the public sector and the experience of the private sector in the field of e-governance solutions. She is also an active entrepreneur - the partner, head of the records management department and the chief designer at Interinx ltd ( since 1996.


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A warm welcome to the "Information Management and Digital Archiving" course. In order to pass this course successfully and to enjoy the learning process, below is some basic information about:  











Course description 

Information is a valuable asset, and documents and records play a huge part in organizations, both public and private. They are used in conducting business processes, to enable decisions to be made and actions taken. Records may be required for business purposes whenever there is a need to recall or prove what was done or decided in the past. Therefore, it is important to pay attention to how we manage everything related to information and what are the necessary measures to guarantee its preservation in the future. Considering all of the above, the course aims to:

  1. firstly, give a general overview, knowledge and understanding of how information life cycle management issues are linked with business processes as well as to (digital) archiving in theory and practice;

  2. secondly, look at what an organisation has to do while dealing with content management, looking at both the organisational and technological points of view in order to establish and maintain digital information and its archiving;

  3. thirdly, give an understanding of and basic skills for the archival management of digital items.


The structure and the content of the course

The course will begin with looking at the principles and meaning of information and data. The definition of information, data, records and the relevant terminology will be discussed. Also, we will talk about the architectural needs for creating an organizational IT environment. The meaning of information systems (IS) as well as its basic functionality and relations with organizational processes will be introduced. Here it is also important to think about to involve business processes in the development of system architectures. Then we will consider how information and data is used in the business context and look at the role of semantics. Paying attention to semantic interoperability helps to avoid data integrity problems, and to access information and knowledge distributed in different databases. Next, we will discuss the relevance of metadata while managing information. Metadata is key to data creation, management and reuse. We will also look at the concepts and use of Big Data. We will also cover information governance, as today’s world is built on the power of information. Information governance increases the efficiency of the public sector, provides more effective and efficient public services, and goes beyond mere simple information transformation. Therefore, we will discuss governance, risk and compliance (GRC) in information management as a safeguard to achieving objectives. Here, we also have to discuss Maturity Models to highlight the different stages of information governance and how to reach each level. We will also stress the importance of electronic documents and records management systems by explaining the principles and functions of these systems. In addition, will give an overview of the business and societal functions of archives. We will also talk about the architecture and functionality of digital archives. And finally, we will look at the technical aspects of long-term digital preservation. We will talk about the threats to the longevity of digital information and the risk mitigation strategies. We will cover the preservation of digitally signed records and the problems related to the legal framework. To conclude, this course should give you an insight into the world of information management and it´s preservation in order to preserve valuable information for future generations.


Teaching and learning methods

During this course, many leading Estonian as well foreign experts in this field will share their experience which will help to provide important practical knowledge about this field. The leading lecturer Ingrid Pappel has been developing documents and records management systems since 2003, therefore her research field is related to the implementation of paperless management in the public sector by developing the suitable methodology for applying digital administration in the most effective way.
In this course you will have reading materials, videos and many practical assignments as well as self evaluations. Teaching is based on the lecturers sharing their experience though short video lectures and self-assessment tests to help you learn the content. The course is divided into 9 chapters. Each chapter consists of 1) a short description of the field, 2) expert videos, 3) field related self-assessments and terminology tests.

Students are encouraged to have open discussions in the blog about the topics in each chapter. The idea behind the course is also knowledge sharing between the students. 

The course will be open from 20th October until 3rd December 2015.


The schedule of the course

During this course the student will spend about 4 hours on 35 video lectures, as the estimated time per one video is 10 minutes. The deadlines for assignments are recommended and can be found in each chapter alongside the task descriptions. 

We have divided the course into 5 modules to help students to keep in schedule: 

MODULE 1 (Oct 20 - Oct 28)


Ch 1. Information, data, documents, records

  1. Defining Information, V. Berendsen
  2. Conceptual and Terminology Framework for Information, V. Berendsen
  3. Document and Record: Defining the Concepts, V. Berendsen
  4. Record Life Cycle and its Management, V. Berendsen
  5. Information Management in Practice, V. Hallik


  • Task 1. Self-assessment test about defining Information
  • Task 2. Self-assessment test on conceptual framework of information
  • Task 3. Self-assessment test about defining documents and records
  • Task 4. Self-assessment test about record life cycle and its management
  • Task 5. Terminology test


Ch 2. Information systems and business: functionality, business processes, services

  1. Information systems as business systems, A. Norta
  2. Twofold meaning of service as a technical and as a business concept, A. Norta
  3. Architectural model of an organization, business-IT alignment, A. Kütt


  • Task 6. Self-assessment test on information systems as business systems
  • Task 7. Self-assessment test on organisational IT-alignment
  • Task 8. Terminology test

MODULE 2 (Oct 29 - Nov 5)


Ch 3. Information, data and semantics

  1. Introduction to semantics, I. Pappel
  2. Semantic interoperability from an architectural and terminological point of view, M. Jarrar
  3. Tools and techniques, how to manage semantics. Statistics and analytics, M. Jarrar


  • Task 9. Self-assessment test on semantics
  • Task 10. Self-assessment test on what is an ontology in e-Government
  • Task 11. Self-assessment test on semantic interoperability in e-Government
  • Task 12. Terminology test


Ch 4. Data and metadata

  1. The basics of big data, I. Liiv
  2. Utilising data mining in information systems, I. Liiv
  3. Use cases for metadata, K. Aas


  • Task 13. Self-assessment test on the big data and data mining
  • Task 14. Self-assessment test on the use cases for metadata
  • Task 15. Terminology test

MODULE 3 (Nov 5 - Nov 16)


Ch 5. Governance, risk and compliance in information management

  1. Governance, risk management and compliance, M. Lauk
  2. GRC tools and technologies, M. Lauk
  3. Strategic Planning and Best Practices for Information Governance, K. Koosapoeg
  4. Information Governance Maturity Model, K. Koosapoeg


  • Task 16. Self-assessment test on GRC
  • Task 17. Self-assessment test on GRC tools
  • Task 18. Self-assessment test on the strategic planning
  • Task 19. Self-assessment test on Information Governance Maturity Model
  • Task 20. Terminology test


Ch 6. Document and records management

  1. Why we need document management and how it makes organisations more efficient?, I. Pappel
  2. Records and their management in the legal framework, A. Käsper
  3. Links between business processes and record management, V. Berendsen
  4. From records management to information governance, L. Karpištšenko


  • Task 21. Self-assessment test on Document management
  • Task 22. Self-assessment test on business processes and record management
  • Task 23. Terminology test

MODULE 4 (Nov 17 - Nov 24)


Ch 7. Archive – core functions (archiving, preservation, access)

  1. Business and societal functions of archives. The role of finding aid, P. Noodapera
  2. What is an archive? V. Berendsen
  3. Digital Data in the Context of Archive Management, K. Aas
  4. Digital archives: core functions and processes, K. Aas
  5. Introduction to integrity, O. Poola
  6. Integrity model analysis, O. Poola


  • Task 24. Self-assessment test on what is an archive
  • Task 25. Self-assessment test on digital data
  • Task 26. Self-assessment test on core functions and processes of digital archives
  • Task 27. Self-assessment test on integrity
  • Task 28. Terminology test


MODULE 5 (Nov 25 - Dec 3)


Ch 8. Digital archive as information system

  1. Architecture and the functionality of digital archives, K. Saarevet
  2. Digital curation, T. Kärberg
  3. Automation of Archival Services, V. Berendsen


  • Task 29. Self-assessment on the architecture and functionality of digital archives
  • Task 30. Self-assessment test on automation of archival services
  • Task 31. Terminology test


Ch 9. Digital preservation

  1. Risk Management in the context of digital information, K. Saarevet
  2. Main mitigation tools for obsolescence risks and preservation strategies, K. Saarevet
  3. Preservation of digitally signed records and problems related to the legal framework, K. Metcalf
  4. Long term preservation of Digital Signatures, K. Saarevet
  5. Recognition of digital signatures, T. Martens


  • Task 32. Self-assessment test on Risk Management of digital information
  • Task 33. Self-assessment test on main mitigation tools for obsolescence risks and preservation strategies
  • Task 34. Self-assessment test on Long term preservation of Digital Signatures
  • Task 35. Self-assessment test on recognition of digital signatures
  • Task 36. Terminology test

Dec 3


Open discussion seminar (ICT-A1)


Dec 10


Final seminar (presentation) (ICT-A1)




Reading list

  • Data Governance. Creating Value from Information Assets (2014) / Edited by Neera Bhansali. - CRC Press
  • Laudon, K.C., Laudon, J.P (2012) Management Information Systems. Managing the Digital Firm. - U.S. Prentice Hall
  • "Raw Data" is an Oxymoron (2013) / Edited by Lisa Gitelman. - U.S, MIT Press
  • Smallwood, R. (2014) Information Governance. Concepts, Strategies and Best Practices. - U.S, Wiley & Sons
  • Smallwood, R. (2013) Managing Electronic Records. Methods, Best Practices, and Technologies.- U.S, Wiley & Sons
  • Ulrich, W., McWorther, N. (2011) Business Architecture. The Art and Practice of Business Transformation.- Tampa, FL, Meghan-Kiffer Press
  • Ulrich, W., Newcomb, P. (2010) Information Systems Transformation. Architecture-Driven Modernization Case Studies. - U.S. Elsevier
  • Van Grembergen, W., De Haes, S. (2009) Enterprise Governance of Information Technology. Achieving Strategic Alignment and Value.- Springer



Dr. Ingrid Pappel, Head of the curriculum "e-Governance Technologies and Services"

I have been working as a software designer and project manager in several state projects since 2003 that have been connected to the implementation of digital administration and digital documents and records management systems, such as DEC and PDIS. Since 2007, it has been my privilege to share the knowledge gained in that field at many universities and also to educate organisations in Estonia. In 2010, I started developing curricula in the e-governance field and today I am planning to kick off with the eState laboratory in cooperation with Mektory and with different state agencies. The eState laboratory should enable to aggregate best-practice academic knowledge as well as the needs of the public sector and the experience of the private sector in the field of e-state solutions.
Partner, head of records management department and chief designer in Interinx.


Andres Kütt, Estonian Information System Architect

Andres Kütt is currently the head architect of Estonian information system. Over the past two decades, he has played a range of roles in both public and private sector with his professional and academic interests gravitating towards various aspects of system architecture.


Prof. Dr.Katrin Merike Nyman-MetcalfHead of the Chair of Law and Technology, TUT

Professor Katrin Nyman Metcalf is Professor and Head of the Chair of Law and Technology at Tallinn Law School, Tallinn University of Technology. She lectures in public international, EU and comparative law with a special emphasis on communications law. She has a PhD (1999) in Public International Law (the law of outer space) from Uppsala University, Sweden. Professor Nyman-Metcalf´s research interests include how law and technology meet especially in the sphere of ICT and e-governance, including privacy and freedom of expression. Apart from her academic work, Katrin is Head of Research for the Estonian e-Governance Academy and works as an international consultant in the area of ICT law and e-governance. She has worked in more than 40 countries all over the world, including many developing and post-conflict societies. 


Mihkel Lauk, Consulting Manager at PwC Advisors

Mihkel is PricewaterhouseCoopers Estonian firm Manager. His specialization is process improvement and information technology governance. Mihkel earned a Master’s degree in IT management from the Estonian Business School (EBS, 2007). He has been active in the ICT area since 1996. Mihkel has set up Estonia’s largest web company ADM Interactive which exports its services to 32 countries across the world. He has been in charge of Hewlett-Packard Internet marketing in the Baltic States and developed web applications in EMEA region.
Mihkel has been involved in many projects in various industries and Public Sector. He has obtained extensive experience in development of Public Services, incl. e-Services since 1998. Mihkel is also experienced business analyst with proficiency in UML and Requirements Management. He is excellent liaison between business and technical people. Mihkel’s skills and experience help to ensure a high-quality input into process and service development.

Tarvi Martens, Father of Estonian eID and Internet Voting  

Tarvo Kärberg, Software Project Manager at the National Archives of Estonia

Tarvo is responsible for software projects of digital preservation software since 2007. He has passed the Estonian national certification as an archivist and is academically involved in teaching a course on digital archival holdings and electronic document management at the University of Tartu. He is also responsible of leading the work package on transfer of records to archives at E-ARK EC Project.

His interest focuses on the theory and methods of collecting and preserving digital knowledge.


Kuldar Aas, Deputy Director of the Digital Archives of the National Archives of Estonia

Kuldar is working at the archives since 2002. Kuldar has participated in developing a set of national standards, requirements and guidelines in the areas of records management, metadata, transfer of electronic information to long-term archives, description and preservation of relational databases and Linked Open Data. He has also been part in the developing of the Estonian proactive digital preservation and reuse environment at NAE. He is representing the national archives in Estonian semantic interoperability and Linked Data taskforces. Internationally he has been participating in multiple projects related to Linked Data, digital preservation and interoperability. Currently he is the Technical Coordinator of the EC-funded E-ARK project which intends to provide international standardisation in the areas of archiving and reusing born-digital government data.

His academic background is in information technology and he holds a Master’s degree (2004) from the University of Tartu.


Veiko Berendsen, Information and Document Management Expert

Veiko is information and document management expert with 15 years of experience. Veiko has more than 20 years of experience teaching at Estonian universities.

Veiko has worked with many documents and records management systems and has been principal architect one system, currently at use in 2 Estonian miisteries with more than 10000 users.

Veiko has been also creator of vocational standard for records manager and was chairman of Estonian committee for information and documentation standardization. 


Koit Saarevet, Project Manager at the National Archives of Estonia

Koit has been working for The National Archives of Estonia since 2000, mostly in the capacity of project manager responsible for the development of various information systems. That includes the Archival Information System AIS (the central catalogue and finding aid) and the long term digital preservation systems. He has taught digital preservation at Estonian universities and at professional training programs.

Koit has a BA in IT management from Estonian Business School and has studied innovation management at MIT as a Hubert H. Humphrey fellow.


Liivi Karpištšenko, Advisor at the Department of Information Society Services Development of the Estonian Ministry of Economic Affairs and Communications.

The department coordinates the development of information society services in the public sector of Estonia. Liivi is responsible for the development of information governance and records management. Prior to joining the department, Liivi worked as an advisor at the Records Management Department of the Government Office. She also has a long-term experience in ICT, having participated in the development and administration of information systems of the Estonian Social Insurance Board.


Kaarel Koosapoeg, IT consultant at PwC Advisors.

With a educational background of history, public administration and technology governance he focuses mainly on process management and IT projects. Kaarel is one of the people responsible for creating Information Governance strategy for Estonia. 


Pille Noodapera, Adviser at the National Archives of Estonia

Pille has graduated the Moscow State Historical and Archival Institute in 1982. Since then I have worked on various records- and archives management-related positions in public archives. At the present time I work as adviser at The National Archives.
I have been involved in preparation of records- and arhival management legislation, policy and stategy documents and best practice guidelines.


Viljar Hallik, Non-Commissioned Officer at Estonian Defence Forces

For the past 20 years, I have been serving in Estonian Defence Forces as a Non-Commissioned Officer (NCO). I have been in Information Management functions since 2008. My most valuable Information Management experience comes from international assignments from NATO Joint Warfare and International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) in Afghanistan. Currently studying Business Information Technology at Tallinn University of Technology.


Technical team

Karin Oolu, Technical Editor, e-Governance Technologies and Services, Tallinn University of Technology

Kalev Lepik, Video Director, Tallinn University of Technology


















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