서양중세인들의 삶과 조건을 영어로 된 각종 자료를 찾아가며 살펴본다. 시대별, 주제별 토픽중심으로 인터넷속에서 영어로된 각종 자료를 조사해서 합동으로 유럽 중세사에 관한 e-book 을 만들어 본다.
European Medieval History/유럽중세사/Google Course Builder
https://www.udemy.com/medieval-history/ Udemy 중세사
17. The Dark Ages
Barbarian kingdoms took possession of the fragments of the Roman Empire.
The Roman Empire reached its zenith during the second century. However, the problems of administering such a vast territory and its diverse peoples, the lack of a coherent means of imperial succession, and a succession of weak emperors resulted in a series of crises. In order to better manage the sprawling territory in the Mediterranean, Emperor Diocletian split the Roman Empire into eastern and western halves in 285. Forty-five years later, this division was further entrenched when Emperor Constantine founded a new capital city—Constantinople—in the eastern empire. During the next several centuries, the western Roman Empire was plagued by financial problems, a shrinking army, and barbarian invasions. In 410, Rome was invaded by the Visigoths—a Germanic tribe in Spain—and in 476 Emperor Romulus Augustulus was deposed by the Germanic leader Odoacer. While Justinian I, emperor of the eastern Roman Empire, was able to regain power over many territories in the West, the western Roman Empire continued effectively ceased to exist.
During this time, the eastern empire—also known as Byzantium—was plagued by its own problems. Though Justinian I—the last Latin-speaking emperor—had enlarged the empire and codified legislative power, his death marked the beginning of a period of political turmoil and the arrival of the bubonic plague. Invasions from the Persians in the east and from the Lombards in the west created an uncertain future for Byzantium. Struggles against the Muslim world, including the siege of Constantinople in 717-718, plunged Byzantium into a period known the “dark ages.” Although Byzantium did regain much of its former prestige under Macedonian rule, challenges from the Turks, internal conflicts, and skirmishes precipitated by the Crusades eventually brought the empire to its knees in the thirteenth century.
In this unit, we will consider the divergent paths of the western and eastern portions of the Roman Empire between the fourth and the fourteenth centuries. We will study how the end of antiquity paved the way for the emergence of the medieval world.
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