§ Introduction to data communication. Overview of the OSI model. Frequency response, bandwidth, ﬁltering, and noise. Fourier series and Fourier transform. Information theory concepts: Nyquist’s theorem, Shannon theorem, and Sampling theorem. Analog and digital modulation techniques. Pulse Code Modulation (PCM). Communication systems circuits and devices. Data encoding. Physical layer protocols. Data Link Control (point to point communication, design issues, link management, error control, and ﬂow control). Multiplexing.