14 The Role of Education for Human and Community Life and Its Functions


Hamza Hassan


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Definition of education

In Indonesian, the word education consists of words of students who get the prefix and suffix, which means things or ways to educate. The word education is also often used as a translation of the word education in English and the word tarbiyah in Arabic. The term education comes from the word students by giving it a prefix and a suffix, containing the meaning of an action (things, ways and so on). The term education was originally derived from the Greek language paedagogie which means guidance given to children.

The education process is an uninterrupted journey throughout human life and is a very significant thing in human life. Therefore, many theories or concepts about education have emerged with different backgrounds, both space and time, so that the definition of education also becomes different.

In a general sense of education according to hasan langgulung that education is the process of transferring values ​​in a society to every individual in it and the process of transferring cultural values ​​through teaching. Education can be interpreted in three kinds

  1. Education is interpreted broadly that
    is education is the same as life is all situations in life that affect one's growth, and education is the learning experience of everyone throughout life
  2. Definition is interpreted narrowly
    Education is a school or school and the influence that is sought and engineered by the school against children and adolescents who are given to them so that they have perfect abilities and full awareness of the relationships and social tasks

  3. Broad and limited understanding
    Education is a learning experience in the whole environment, both at school and outside the school that is deliberately organized to achieve certain goals.
    From various opinions expressed by experts about the meaning of education, we can draw a common thread that education is the process of transferring values ​​in a society including cultural values ​​in teaching held in the school environment or outside the school environment in achieving certain goals.

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40 Education According to Experts

The notions or definitions of education according to experts in their fields include:

  1. According to Prof. H. Mahmud Yunus
    What is meant by education is an effort that is deliberately chosen to influence and help children who aim to improve knowledge, physical and moral so that it can slowly lead children to the highest goals and ideals. In order to obtain a happy life and what he does can be beneficial for himself, society, nation, country and religion.
  2. According to Prof. Dr. John Dewey
    According to him education is a process of experience. Because life is growth, education means helping the inner growth of humans without being limited by age. The process of growth is the process of adjustment in each phase and adding skills in one's development through education.
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  3. According to MJ Langeveld
    Education is an effort in guiding immature humans towards maturity. Education is an effort in helping children to carry out their life's tasks, so that they become independent and morally responsible. Education is also interpreted as an effort to achieve self-determination and responsibility.

  4. According to Prof. Herman H. Horn
    He argues that education is a process of higher adjustment for beings who have developed physically and mentally that are free and aware of God as manifested in the natural, intellectual, emotional and will of humans.

  5. According to Driyarkara
    Education is defined as an effort to humanize young people or the appointment of young people to a human level.

  6. The Big Indonesian Dictionary (KBBI)
    Education is a learning process for each individual to achieve higher knowledge and understanding of specific and specific objects. The knowledge obtained formally has an effect on every individual, that is, they have a mindset, behavior and character that is in accordance with the education they have acquired.

  7. According to Ki Hajar Dewantara
    According to him, education is a demand in the life of growing children. The point is that education guides all natural forces that exist in students so that as human beings and community members can achieve the highest safety and happiness in life.

  8. According to Stella van Petten Henderson
    Education is a combination of human growth and development with social heritage.

  9. According to Kohnstamm and Gunning
    Education is a formation of the human conscience, namely education is a process of formation and ethical self-determination in accordance with conscience.

  10. According to Horne
    Stating that education is a process that is carried out continuously from higher adjustments for humans who have developed physically and mentally.

  11. According to Frederick J. Mc Donald
    Expressing his opinion that education is a process whose purpose is to change the nature of human beings or students.

  12. According to Ahmad D. Marimba
    Stating that education is a process of guidance that is carried out consciously by educators of a process of physical and spiritual development of students, the purpose of which is to form the personality of students is very superior. This personality is meant deep enough, that is, a person who is not only smart, academically clever, but also good in character.

  13. According to Carter V. Good
    Defines education as a process of developing one's skills in the form of attitudes and behaviors that apply in society. The process by which a person is influenced by a guided environment, especially within the school environment so that he can achieve social skills and can develop his personality.

  14. Indonesian Education Encyclopedia
    Explains education, which is a process of guiding humans or students from darkness, ignorance, ignorance, and intelligence of knowledge.

  15. SISDIKNAS Law No.20 of 2003
    Education is an effort made consciously and planned to create an atmosphere and learning process so that students are actively able to develop the potential within themselves to have religious spiritual strength, good personality, self-control, noble character , intelligence, and skills needed by himself and the community.

  16. According to Abdullah Ibnu Al-Muqafah
    Education is the need to get something that will strengthen and reach a high level of perfection or perfection which is a meal for and spiritual

  17. According to Plato
    Education is something that can help the development of individuals from the body and mind with something that can enable the achievement of perfection

  18. According to Mary McLeod Bethune
    Education in the strict sense is an act or process to acquire a knowledge.

  19. According to Edgar Dale
    Education is an effort made consciously by the family, community or government through guidance, teaching, learning and training that takes place, both carried out at school or outside school throughout life to prepare students to be able to carry out their role in the environment for the future. come.

  20. According to Thedore Brameld
    Education is a process that is broader than the ongoing process in schools. Education is a social activity that allows the community to remain and continue to grow.

  21. According to Prof. Zaharai Indris, MA
    Education is a series of communication activities aimed at adult humans or educators with students face to face or using media in order to provide assistance to children's development as a whole.

  22. According to Ahmad D. Marimba
    Education is the leader or conscious guidance by educators on the physical and spiritual development of students towards the formation of the main personality

  23. According to An-Nahlawi
    Education in Arabic is tarbiyah, meaning tarbiyah or education is all efforts in megurus, regulating and improving everything or potential that already exists from birth in order to grow and develop into more mature.

  24. According to Ibn Sina
    Education or learning related to all aspects of human beings, ranging from physical, mental or moral. Education is forbidden to ignore physical development and anything that has an influence on physical development such as sports, drinks, food, cleanliness and sleep. So education does not only pay attention to the moral aspects, but also forms a whole individual, including soul, character and mind.

  25. According to Godfrey Thomson
    Education is the influence of the environment on individuals to produce changes right in the habits or customs of behavior, thoughts and feelings.

  26. UNESCO
    "education is now engaged in preparation for a life Society which does not yet exist" or that education is now to prepare humans for a type of society that still does not exist. The concept of the education system may change according to the development of society and the transfer of cultural values ​​(transfer of culture values). The current concept of education cannot be separated from education that must be in accordance with the demands of past, present and future educational needs.

  27. According to Darmaningtyas
    Education is education as a basic and systematic effort to achieve a better standard of living and progress

  28. According to Paulo Freire
    Education is the path to permanent liberation and consists of two stages. The first stage is the time when humans become aware of their liberation, damana through praxis changes the situation. The second stage builds on the first stage, and is a process of liberating cultural action.

  29. According to H. Horne
    Education is a continuous process of higher adjustments for human beings who have developed physically and mentally, who are free and conscious of God, as manifested in the natural, intellectual, emotional and human nature of human beings.

  30. According to SA Bratanata et al.
    Education is a business that is intentionally carried out both directly and indirectly to help children in their development reach maturity

  31. According to Drs. Wasty Soemanto. M.Pd
    Education is a learning process that produces experiences that provide personal well-being, both physically and spiritually

  32. GBHN
    Education is a conscious effort to develop personality and abilities inside and outside of school and last for a lifetime

  33. According to Prof. Dr. Dedi Supriadi
    Education is one of the functions that must be carried out as well as possible by the family and community in an integrated manner with various institutions that are deliberately held to develop the educational function.

  34. According to Girex B
    Education is a variety of efforts and efforts made by adults to educate students' reasoning and regulate their morals.

  35. According to Dr. Sutari Imam Bernadib
    Educational science is studying the atmosphere and educational processes. The intended process is the methods undertaken to obtain education in a systematic and gradual manner.

  36. According to Drs. M. Ngailim Purwanto
    Educational science is the science that investigates, ponders about the symptoms of the act of educating

  37. According to Prof. Dr. Faith Barnadib in the UGM philosophy faculty of
    Education is a conscious and systematic effort to achieve a better standard of living or progress

  38. According to Law No. 2 of 1989
    Education is a conscious effort to prepare students through guidance, teaching, and or training activities for their role in the future

  39. According to Law No. 2 of 2003
    Education is a conscious and planned effort to create a learning atmosphere and learning process so that students actively develop their potential to have spiritual spiritual strength, self-control, personality, moral intelligence of the nation and state

  40. According to Wikipedia
    Education is learning the knowledge, skills, and habits of a group of people who are passed from one generation to the next through teaching, training, or research
    From some understanding of the definition of education, it can be concluded that education is the guidance given to children in infancy and its development to reach the level of maturity and aim to increase knowledge, shape the character of self, and direct the child to become a better person. Education can also be interpreted as a conscious effort that aims to prepare students in learning through a teaching activity, guidance and training for their role in the future.

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Educational Function

According to Hasan Langgulung, Islamic education is education that has the following kinds of functions:

  • Preparing young people to play certain roles in society in the future. This role is closely related to the continued life of the people themselves.
  • Transferring knowledge related to this role from the older generation to the younger generation.
  • Transferring values ​​aimed at maintaining the integrity and unity of society which is an absolute prerequisite for the continuation of life of a society and civilization. In other words, without the values ​​of wholeness and unity of a society, then the continuation of life will not be properly maintained which will eventually end with the destruction of the community itself.

Responding to the function of education according to Hasan Langgulung mentioned above, that education has an important task in preparing candidates or new generations who are ready to manage and play an active role in society in the future, then carry out human cadre to continue the life relay through the transfer of knowledge from people old to young generation, and last but not least is maintaining the continuity of culture and civilization that must be sustainable in people's lives.

According to an education expert Bogardus provides educational functions through two kinds:

  • Education serves to eradicate ignorance
  • Eliminates misunderstanding

What is meant by eradicating such stupidity is, through the educational process a student will be given a lesson on how to learn to read and write then develop intellectual knowledge and abilities. When the above is obtained by students, it will create the results of the mind, which then produces actions to choose good and bad and understand the meaning of life both in the world and the hereafter.

Through education will eliminate misunderstanding, which means that education will provide understanding that in addition to the culture that is owned and is in the environment of one individual, there is another culture. If individuals understand this, they will understand the nature of life in a society that respects and socializes. How is the function of Islamic education. In this case Zakiah Daradjat takes three kinds of religious functions, namely giving guidance in life, helping in dealing with hardships, and pacifying the mind.

In life, it cannot be separated from various kinds of problems, in the form of economic, social and political problems. Religious education plays an important role in guiding people back on the path of religious law, so as not to get off the path of faith. When a problem is faced by someone who has a religious education, then in religion there are educations that provide solutions to the difficulties encountered. And religion makes someone calm to deal with problems that occur with the knowledge of what they are going through, whether the problems obtained are in the form of tests, or trials, or punishment.

In other functions of Education that, education contributes in giving style and direction to life in the future community. According to the explanation above, it is the education of the future seeds or successors who are educated and nurtured by their interests and talents according to the place and condition and future needs. If wrong in educating it will create generations that are not in accordance with the expected educational goals.

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The Function and Role of Education in Society

Discussing the role and function of education in society there are various kinds of opinions. Wuradji, stated that education as a conservative lemaga has the following functions.

  1. The function of socialization
  2. Social control function
  3. The function of community cultural preservation
  4. The function of training and workforce development
  5. Selection and allocation functions,
  6. The function of education and social change
  7. The function of cultural reproduction
  8. The function of cultural diffusion,
  9. Social improvement function
  10. Social modification function.

Jeane H. Ballantine (1983) states that the function of education in society is as follows

  • socialization function
  • selection, training and allocation functions
  • the function of innovation and social change
  • personal and social development functions.

Meta Spencer and Alec Inkeles (1982) state that the function of education in society is as follows

  1. transferring cultural values
  2. teaching values
  3. increased social mobility
  4. stratification function
  5. position training
  6. develop and strengthen social relations
  7. form the spirit of nationalism, (8) baby sitters.

From the three opinions mentioned above, there is no difference but they are complementary between one opinion and another:

Socialization Function

Education is expected to have a role in the process of socialization in the community can carry out its functions properly, so that the socialization process can run smoothly and smoothly. Therefore, parents and families hope that the school can carry out the process as well as possible. In this institution the teacher acts as a model and can carry out the mandate of the parents (family and community) so that students can understand and adopt values ​​that can be applied in the future.

Control Function

Schools in providing values ​​and loyalty to the order to the community must function for school service institutions to exercise social control. Through such education, individuals can take on social values ​​and interact with their daily lives.

Function of Community Cultural Preservation

Besides having a function and task to unite diverse ethical cultures, schools must also preserve local cultural values ​​that can still be maintained, for example arts, local languages, character and efforts to utilize local resources for the public interest and so on.

Functions of Education and Social Change

The role and function of education in social change to be able to improve the ability of students who are critical analysis role to instill new beliefs and values ​​in the way of human thinking. Education in modern times has succeeded in creating a new generation with creative power and can think critically, attitudes are not easy in the existing situation and attitudes that are responsive to change. This method will be able to break away from dependence on the help of others. Thus students besides being able to understand social change can also be agents of change itself.

School Functions in Society

Regarding the existence of three forms of education, namely formal education, informal education and non-formal education. Formal education is also called school. Therefore the school is not the only institution that organizes education but there are still other institutions that also organize education. Schools as education providers have two functions, namely as community partners and as producers of labor. Schools as community partners will be influenced by the style of one's experience in the community.

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The Purpose of Education in Life

With the aim and understanding of education in accordance with the two things above, it can be interpreted that education has a very large function and role, both for oneself, the environment, society, nation, religion, as explained below:

  • Realizing Individuals Who Ta'at and Devoted To God

Based on the state of Indonesia which is in the first precept of Pancasila, which is almighty divinity, education has a role in creating obedient individuals in religion and devotion to God Almighty with the aim of carrying out all His commands and knowing all His prohibitions.

  • Realizing Individuals who are ethical and moral

In the second precept in Pancasila, the important role of education in our country Indonesia is as a form of individuals and communities who have self-control, moral, responsibility, and have good morals.

  • Printing Smart and Creative Young Generation

Education has a role in educating the younger generation, not only that but must be able to develop the potential in each individual. Without an educator, the generation withers away and is weak.

  • Develop a Critical and Dynamic Mindset

Education is also not only to produce young people who excel, but to develop a dynamic and critical mindset, so they can determine what is better and what is bad based on conscience and reason.

  • Establish a Healthy Personality Physical and Spiritual

Education is also not spared from real effort as a form of individuals who have a healthy personality, both spiritual and jasmami. Thus, education teaches that individuals can take care of their mental and mental health. and liver health of a despicable nature.

  • Creating Individuals Who Are Able To Socialize Well In Society

Education as the main basis for socializing, that is, homosexual humans, meaning beings who cannot live without the participation and role of others. Education also has a role as an individual creator who can socialize well in society.

  • Creating a Unified Society

By virtue of the third principle of Pancasila and Bhenika Tunggal Ika, education moves the collar of each individual to unite with one another regardless of religion, type, ethnicity, social status, ancestry and custom.

  • Realizing Individuals Who Love and Care About the Environment

The environment is something that is also needed in life, because if the environment is friendly it can affect the peace in communicating the environment. For this reason, in every educational process that is always taught to students to be able to love and care for the environment around them.

  • Creating a Peaceful and Happy Society

Education also has a role as a creator of a peaceful, happy and peaceful atmosphere of the community, where each individual in the community understands and understands, tolerates each other, respects and respects each other, and loves one another with love for the formation of a strong moral foundation.

  • Welcoming the Shining Future of a Country

A country has a future that lies in its young generation, withdrawing or advancing a country depending on the younger generation. Meanwhile, to realize the ideals to become a more developed and better country, education is one of the focal points in this regard. The young generation can become the next generation who are superior depending on how education will be applied. This is where education is so important to influence the quality of a country in the future.

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Education in human development

Education is a system to improve the quality of human life in all aspects of life. In the history of mankind, there is hardly a group of people who do not use education as a means of civilizing and improving its quality. Education is needed to prepare human children to support their role in the future. Educational efforts carried out by a nation have a significant relationship with the engineering of the nation in the future. As such, education is the best means of creating a new generation of young people who will not lose their ties to their own traditions but also do not become intellectually stupid or retarded in their education or are unaware of developments in every branch of human knowledge.

Education is a cultural process to enhance human dignity and that lasts throughout life. Education is always developing, and always faced with changing times. For this reason, inevitably education must be designed to follow the rhythm of change, if education is not designed to follow the rhythm of change, then education will lag behind the speed of the development of the era itself.

For human development, education is. First, the cultural transformation from generation to generation, maintaining the essence elements of culture by opening up to a positive path from the outside. Second Education is responsible for the current generation, meaning that education cannot be blind to unemployment and must create prosperity in life. Third in the most difficult task of education is to prepare future generations in the development of life, who used to live in traditional conditions must prepare a generation that is able to break through modern life and play an active role.

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